Tag Archives: in utero

A Pint for a Pound? Minimum Drinking Age Laws and Birth Outcomes

TITLE
A Pint for a Pound? Minimum Drinking Age Laws and Birth Outcomes

AUTHORS
Barreca, Alan, & Marianne Page

STATUS
Health Economics | 2015 | 24(4): 400-418

LINK

ABSTRACT
Minimum legal drinking age (MLDA) laws are known to reduce alcohol consumption among young adults. One additional benefit of higher MLDAs may be that they improve health outcomes among infants born to young mothers. We estimate the impact of MLDAs on infant health in the USA by comparing birth outcomes among 14–20 year old mothers who were exposed to different MLDAs because of when and where they gave birth. Infants born to mothers who were between the ages of 21 and 24 years are included as a control group. We find that low MLDAs are associated with very small birth weight reductions, but have a little relationship with other traditional measures of infant health. We find compelling evidence, however, that a low MLDA increases the probability of a female birth, which suggests that restricting alcohol access to young mothers may reduce fetal deaths.

The Long-Term Economic Impact of In Utero and Postnatal Exposure to Malaria

TITLE
The Long-Term Economic Impact of In Utero and Postnatal Exposure to Malaria

AUTHOR
Barreca, Alan

STATUS
Journal of Human Resources | 2010 | 45(4): 865-892

LINK

ABSTRACT
I use an instrumental-variables identification strategy and historical data from the United States to estimate the long-term economic impact of in utero and postnatal exposure to malaria. My research design matches adults in the 1960 Decennial Census to the malaria death rate in their respective state and year of birth. To address potential omitted-variables bias and measurement-error bias, I use variation in “malaria-ideal” temperatures to instrument for malaria exposure. My estimates indicate that in utero and postnatal exposure to malaria led to considerably lower levels of educational attainment and higher rates of poverty later in life.